Prévision d’ensemble des crues rapides méditerranéennes

Abstract : Intense precipitation events in the Mediterranean often lead to devastating flash floods. The affected watersheds are characterized by steep slopes and a short response time. Flash floods can be violent and destructive. Dedicated meteorological and hydrological systems are thus necessary to anticipate those flash floods. The ISBA -TOP coupled system was developed to simulate the hydrological reaction of fast responding rivers. It is a coupling between the ISBA surface scheme and a version of the TOPMODEL hydrological model dedicated to mediterranean flash floods simulation. A first part of the thesis aims at assessing the benefit of a better representation of hydrological processes within the soil for discharge simulation with ISBA-TOP. Moreover, it would allow the use of ISBA-TOP for any watershed even ungauged. A version of ISBA-TOP based on ISBA-DF (the diffusive version of ISBA that discretizes soil columns in multiple layers) has been compared to the original ISBA-TOP that relies on ISBA-3L (with only 3 soil layers). On 18 study cases, better discharge simulations are obtained basically using the new ISBA-TOP version. So this improved representation of hydrological processes in the soil allows to improve discharge simulations and to be confident into the results obtained for small ungauged catchments. The second part of this PhD work concerns the uncertainty that affects ISBA-TOP simulations. For flash floods, rainfall data used to drive an hydrological model are the major source of uncertainty. But initial soil moisture knowledge is also uncertain and the hydrological model himself is affected by uncertainty. The sensitivity of ISBA-TOP model to its parameters and initial soil moisture is investigated to document those two sources of uncertainty. First an academic case is used to verify some preliminary hypotheses and then real cases are studied to properly consider the different data heterogeneities. Discharge simulations with ISBA-TOP are sensitive to three hydro dynamical parameters : the saturated soil water content, the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the rate of decrease of the transmissivity with depth. This sensitivity is found very dependant on initial soil moisture conditions. Perturbation methods varying the 3 parameters that have the highest impact on discharge simulations as well as initial soil moisture allow to design an ensemble prediction system. This ensemble has been assessed for 6 real cases. Using this ensemble-based approach for discharge simulation lead to better results than using the deterministic version. The skill of the ensemble with 30 to 50 members is close to the skill of this ensemble with 100 members whereas it outerperfoms an ensemble with 10 members. The last part of the thesis is the conception of a complete hydrometeorological ensemble prediction system (HEPS). The hydrological ensemble defined in the second part of the thesis is used to take the uncertainty that affects the hydrological modelling and initials soil moisture into account. The uncertainty that affects precipitation fields is sampled using the AROME ensemble prediction system (AROME-EPS). The skill of this complete chain is better than an HEPS based on AROME-EPS and the deterministic version of ISBA-TOP. But both HEPS exhibit a low bias for discharge simulation on the study cases sample. This bias can come from a low bias that is found for the AROME-EPS rainfall forecasts. A simple bias correction applied on rainfall forecasts improves the bias on discharge forecasts.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 23, 2017 - 11:43:03 AM
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Simon Edouard. Prévision d’ensemble des crues rapides méditerranéennes. Météorologie. Université Toulouse 3 - Paul Sabatier, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01494342⟩

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